(a) A hard, compact mass or aggregate of mineral matter, normally subspherical, but commonly oblate, disk-shaped, or irregular with odd or fantastic outlines; formed by precipitation from aqueous solution about a nucleus or center, such as a leaf, shell, bone, or fossil, in the pores of a sedimentary or fragmental volcanic rock, and usually of a composition widely different from that of the rock in which it is found and from which it is rather sharply separated. It represents a concentration of some minor constituent of the enclosing rock or cementing material, such as silica (chert), calcite, delimite, iron oxide, pyrite, or gypsum, and it ranges in size from a small pellet-like object to a great spheroidal body as much as 3 m in diameter. Most concretions were formed during diagenesis, and many (especially in limestone and shale) shortly after sediment deposition. (b) A collective term applied loosely to various primary and secondary mineral segregations of diverse origin, including irregular nodules, spherulities, crystalline aggregates, geodes, septaria, and related bodies.